apropos  Search Help manual pages (man -k)  apt-get  Search for and install software packages (Debian)  aptitude  Search for and install software packages (Debian)  aspell  Spell Checker  awk  Find and Replace , database sort/validate/index basename  Strip directory and suffix from filenames  bash  GNU Bourne-Again Shell  bc  Arbitrary precision calculator language  bg  Send to background  break  Exit from a loop  builtin  Run a shell builtin  bzip2  Compress or decompress named files  cal  Display a calendar  case  Conditionally perform a command  cat  Concatenate and print (display) the content of files  cd  Change Directory  cfdisk  Partition table manipulator for Linux  chgrp  Change group ownership  chkconfig  System services (runlevel)  chmod  Change access permissions  chown  Change file owner and group  chroot  Run a command with a different root directory  cksum  Print CRC checksum and byte counts  clear  Clear terminal screen  cmp  Compare two files  comm  Compare two sorted files by  command  Run a command – ignoring shell functions  continue  Resume the next iteration of a loop  cp  Copy one or more files to another location  cron  Daemon to execute scheduled  crontab  Schedule a command to run at a later time  csplit  Split a file into context-determined pieces  cut  Divide a file into several parts  date  Display or change the date and time  dc  Desk Calculator  dd  Convert and copy a file, write disk headers, boot records  ddrescue  Data recovery tool  declare  Declare variables and give them attributes  df  Display free disk space  diff  Display the differences between two files  diff3  Show differences among three files  dig  DNS lookup  dir  Briefly directory contents  dircolors  Colour setup for `ls’  dirname  Convert a full pathname to just a path  dirs  Display list of remembered directories  dmesg  Print kernel & driver messages  du  Estimate file space usage  echo  Display message on screen  egrep  Search files for lines that match an extended expression  eject  Eject removable media  enable  Enable and disable builtin shell commands  env  Environment variables  ethtool  Ethernet card settings  eval  Evaluate several commands/arguments  exec  Execute a command  exit  Exit the shell  expand  Convert tabs to spaces  expect  Automate arbitrary applications accessed over a terminal  export  Set an environment variable  expr  Evaluate expressions  fdformat  Low-level format a floppy disk  fdisk  Partition table manipulator for Linux  fg  Send job to foreground  fgrep  Search files for lines that match a fixed string  file  Determine file type  find  Search for files that meet a desired criteria  fmt  Reformat paragraph text  fold  Wrap text to fit a specified width  for  Expand words, and execute commands  format  Format disks or tapes  free  Display memory usage  fsck  File system consistency check and repair  ftp  File Transfer Protocol  function  Define Function Macros  fuser  Identify/kill the process that is accessing a file gawk  Find and Replace text within files  getopts  Parse positional parameters  grep  Search files for lines that match a given pattern  groupadd  Add a user security group  groupdel  Delete a group  groupmod  Modify a group  groups  Print group names a user is in  gzip  Compress or decompress named files hash  Remember the full pathname of a name argument  head  Output the first part of files  help  Display help for a built-in command  history  Command History  hostname  Print or set system name  iconv  Convert the character set of a file  id  Print user and group id’s  if  Conditionally perform a command  ifconfig  Configure a network interface  ifdown  Stop a network interface  ifup  Start a network interface up  import  Capture an X server screen and save the image to file  install  Copy files and set attributes jobs  List active jobs  join  Join lines on a common field  kill  Stop a process from running  killall  Kill processes by name  less  Display output one screen at a time  let  Perform arithmetic on shell variables  ln  Create a symbolic link to a file  local  Create variables locate  Find files  logname  Print current login name  logout  Exit a login shell  look  Display lines beginning with a given string  lpc  Line printer control program  lpr  Off line print  lprint  Print a file  lprintd  Abort a print job  lprintq  List the print queue  lprm  Remove jobs from the print queue  ls  List information about files  lsof  List open files  make  Recompile a group of programs  man  Help manual  mkdir  Create new folders  mkfifo  Make FIFOs (named pipes)  mkisofs  Create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem  mknod  Make block or character special files  mmv  Mass Move and rename files  more  Display output one screen at a time  mount  Mount a file system  mtools  Manipulate MS-DOS files  mtr  Network diagnostics (traceroute/ping)  mv  Move or rename files or directories  netstat  Networking information  nice  Set the priority of a command or job  nl  Number lines and write files  nohup  Run a command immune to hangups  notify-send  Send desktop notifications  nslookup  Query Internet name servers interactively  op  Operator access  open  Open a file in its default  passwd  Modify a user password  paste  Merge lines of files  pathchk  Check file name portability  ping  Test a network connection  pkill  Stop processes from running  popd  Restore the previous value of the current directory  pr  Prepare files for printing  printcap  Printer capability database  printenv  Print environment variables  printf  Format and print data  ps  Process status  pushd  Save and then change the current directory  pwd  Print Working Directory  quota  Display disk usage and limits  quotacheck  Scan a file system for disk usage  quotactl  Set disk quotas  ram  ram disk device  rcp  Copy files between two machines  read  Read a line from standard input  readarray  Read from stdin into an array variable  readonly  Mark variables/functions as readonly  reboot  Reboot the system  remsync  Synchronize remote files via email  rename  Rename files  renice  Alter priority of running processes  return  Exit a shell function  rev  Reverse lines of a file  rm  Remove files  rmdir  Remove folders  rsync  Remote file copy (Synchronize file trees)  scp  Secure copy (remote file copy)  screen  Multiplex terminal, run remote shells via ssh  sdiff  Merge two files interactively  sed  Stream Editor  select  Accept keyboard input  seq  Print numeric sequences  set  Manipulate shell variables and functions  sftp  Secure File Transfer Program  shift  Shift positional parameters  shopt  Shell Options  shutdown  Shutdown or restart linux  sleep  Delay for a specified time  slocate  Find files  sort  Sort text files  source  Run commands from a file  split  Split a file into fixed-size pieces  ssh  Secure Shell client (remote login program)  strace  Trace system calls and signals  su  Substitute user identity  sudo  Execute a command as another user  sum  Print a checksum for a file  suspend  Suspend execution of this shell  symlink  Make a new name for a file  sync  Synchronize data on disk with memory  tail  Output the last part of file  tar  Tape Archiver  tee  Redirect output to multiple files  test  Evaluate a conditional expression  time  Measure Program running time  times  User and system times    List processes running on the system  touch  Change file timestamps  tr  Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters  traceroute  Trace Route to Host  trap  Run a command when a signal is set(bourne)  true  Do nothing, successfully  tsort  Topological sort  tty  Print filename of terminal on stdin  type  Describe a command  ulimit  Limit user resources  umask  Users file creation mask  umount  Unmount a device  unalias  Remove an alias  uname  Print system information  unexpand  Convert spaces to tabs  uniq  Uniquify files  units  Convert units from one scale to another  unset  Remove variable or function names  unshar  Unpack shell archive scripts  until  Execute commands (until error)  uptime  Show uptime  useradd  Create new user account  usermod  Modify user account  users  List users currently logged in  uudecode  Decode a file created by uuencode  uuencode  Encode a binary file  v  Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)  vdir  Verbosely list directory contents (`ls -l -b’)  vi  Text Editor  vmstat   virtual memory statistics  wait  Wait for a process to complete  watch  Execute/display a program periodically  wc  Print byte, , and line counts  wget  Retrieve web pages or files via HTTP, HTTPS or FTP  whereis  Search the user’s $path, man pages and source files for a program  which  Search the user’s $path for a program file  while  Execute commands  who  Print all usernames currently logged in  whoami  Print the current user id and name (`id -un’)  write  Send a message to another user  xargs  Execute utility, passing constructed argument lists  xdg-open  Open a file or URL in the user’s preferred application  yes   Print a string until interrupted

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